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PD IEC TS 62994 pdf free download

PD IEC TS 62994 pdf free download.Photovoltaic (PV) modules through the life cycle – Environmental health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment – General principles and nomenclature.
4.2 Life cycle assessment (LCA) of PV
4.2.1 Fundamentals General
These fundamentals describe the basis for the subsequent requirements in this document. The quantification and reporting of an LCA in accordance with this document are based on the principles of the LCA methodology provided in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. Life cycle perspective
The development of LCA quantification and communication takes into consideration all stages of the life cycle of PV electricity production, including raw material acquisition, production, use and the end of life stage. Iterative approach
When applying the four phases of LCA (goal and scope definition, life cycle inventory analysis, life cycle impact assessment and interpretation, see 4.2.3 to 4.2.5) to a LCA study, use an iterative approach (continuous reassessment as needed when refining the LCA study). The iterative approach will contribute to the consistency of the LCA study and the reported results. Scientific approach
When making decisions within a LCA, give preference to natural science (such as physics, chemistry, biology). If that is impossible, use other scientific approaches (such as social and economic sciences) or refer to approaches contained in conventions relevant and valid within the geographical scope valid for the LCA study. Permit decisions within a LCA based on value choices, as appropriate, only if neither a natural scientific basis exists nor a justification based on other scientific approaches or international conventions is possible, and explain the rationale for such value choices. Relevance
Select data and methods appropriate to the assessment of the emissions and resource
consumptions arising from the product system being studied. Completeness
Include all emissions and resource consumptions, unit processes and life cycle stages that provide a significant contribution to the environmental impacts of the product system being studied. Consistency
Apply assumptions, methods and data in the same way throughout the LCA study to arrive at conclusions in accordance with the goal and scope definition. Coherence
Select methodologies, standards and guidance documents already recognized and adopted for PV electricity production to enhance comparability between LCA studies within this specific product category. Accuracy
Ensure that LCA quantification and communication are accurate, verifiable, relevant and not misleading and that bias and uncertainties are reduced as far as is practical. Transparency
Address and document all relevant issues in an open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information. Notify any relevant assumptions and make appropriate references to the methodologies and data sources used. Clearly explain any estimates and avoid bias so that the LCA report faithfully represents its purpose.
Ensure that LCA communication is available to the intended audience and its intended meaning is presented in a way that is clear, meaningful and understandable. Include information on functional unit, data assumptions, calculation methods and other characteristics to make limitations in the comparisons of LCAs transparent and clear to the target group. Present LCA information so that it is accurate, verifiable, relevant and not misleading.
4.2.2 Photovoltaics-specific aspects Life expectancy
The recommended life expectancy to be used in LCA of photovoltaic components and systems and differences between the components are as follows. (If there is ascribed or declared life expectancy by manufacturer, use it instead):
• Modules: 30 years for mature module technologies 1 (e.g., glass-glass or glass-Tedlar encapsulation).
• Inverters: 15 years for small plants (residential PV), 30 years with 10 % parts replacement for large size plants (utility scale PV)2
• Transformers: 30 years.
• Structure: 30 years for roof-top and façades, and between 30 to 60 years for ground mount installations on metal supports. Sensitivity analyses should be carried out by varying the service life of the ground-mount supporting structures within the same time span.
• Cabling: 30 years.
• Manufacturing plants (capital equipment): The lifetime is 10 to 20 years but in some cases may be shorter than 10 years, due to the rapid development of technology. Assumptions need to be listed.PD IEC TS 62994 pdf download.

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